NDMU Course Catalog : http://catalog.ndm.edu/ccg

Chemistry

Women's College

Overview
Major
Minor
Pre-Medical, Pre-Dental, and Pre-Veterinary Programs
Secondary Education Certification
Dual Degree: Chemistry and Engineering
B.A. Chemistry - Pharm.D. Options
Four-Year Plan
Course Descriptions

Angela R. Sherman, Ph.D., Chair
Alfred T. D'Agostino, Ph.D.
M. Kristine Kirk, Ph.D.
Jocelyn McKeon, Ph.D.

The chemistry department of the School of Arts and Sciences offers a major and minor in chemistry to students in the Women's College. It also offers Women's College students preparation for pharmacy, medical, dental, veterinary and graduate schools, as well as for secondary teaching certification. Chemistry, the study of matter and energy, is a challenging discipline that prepares students for many different careers, such as research, pharmaceutical sciences, biotechnology, medicine, engineering and education. Interdisciplinary opportunities may be created by using the chemistry degree in the context of other fields (including law, business, technical and science writing, and information science).

The chemistry program at Notre Dame is designed to give students a broad view and deep understanding of the chemical sciences. Introductory courses offer the student a solid foundation in chemical principles, while laboratory experiences introduce her to the techniques and practices of modern chemistry. Advanced courses are used to treat important areas and methods of chemistry such as chemical determinations and analyses, data reduction and interpretation, experiment design, synthesis, compound structure determination and identification, physicochemical measurements, chemical separations, chemical theories, properties and reactivity, atomic structure and supramolecular chemistry, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibria, instrumentation, quantum mechanics, computational chemistry, simulation and modeling, technical writing, use of computers, the chemical literature, and major works in chemistry.

Small classes secure a close relationship between students and faculty. As a student progresses through the curriculum, she builds a knowledge base and develops her critical and analytical thinking skills, develops a professional attitude and collaborative skills, increases her level of participation in the program, and engages in problem-solving activities. Laboratories are equipped with modern instruments for spectroscopy, chromatography, electrochemistry and chemical analysis, providing an environment in which students can explore chemistry by exercising their creativity through experimentation.

Juniors and seniors are encouraged to integrate their course experiences by conducting original research under the supervision of one of the faculty. In addition, students are advised to explore chemical work experience through an internship in a government, industrial or medical laboratory in the area. Students have successfully completed internships and research experiences for undergraduates at organizations such as the Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense and University of Maryland School of Pharmacy Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

The chemistry program prepares its majors for graduate study in chemistry and related fields, for medical or other professional schools, for work in clinical and professional laboratories, for teaching in secondary schools and for interdisciplinary careers. Graduates have completed advanced degrees at institutions such as Harvard University Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Howard University School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Notre Dame of Maryland University School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland Medical School, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Graduates are employed at organizations such as Cristal USA; McCormick & Co., Inc.; Argonne National Laboratories; US Army Research Lab; Fisher BioServices; Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, Inc.; and Constellation Energy.

For students interested in a career in pharmacy, Notre Dame's School of Pharmacy offers the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) program and a 3-4 (B.A./Pharm.D.) program for chemistry majors. A 3-2 dual degree program in engineering is also available. Chemistry majors may pursue the B.A. or B.A./M.A.T. program in secondary education as well.

Students interested in the chemistry major, including those who would like to transfer from another institution, should contact a department representative prior to arrival on campus. Students should declare the major and indicate choice of program by the beginning of the second semester of study.

Students may be invited to be inducted into the Gamma Theta chapter of the Gamma Sigma Epsilon Chemistry Honor Society or they may join the Student Affiliates of the American Chemical Society. The activities available to students include pursuing internships at institutions in the region, contributing to professional conferences and symposia, attending meetings of the Maryland Section of the American Chemical Society (held on campus and locally), participating in chemistry department seminars and other events, and sponsoring social events. Special opportunities exist for students to work as student lab assistants and in the department’s prep and stockrooms. Scholarships and awards include the Sister Denise Dooley Scholarship, Anne Dulea Award, CRC Press Chemistry Achievement student award, and American Chemical Society student award.

The general education requirement in the natural sciences may be fulfilled by taking CHM-103, CHM-104 (for radiological sciences and nursing students), CHM-108 (for nursing students), CHM-110 and CHM-113 (for College of Adult Undergraduate Studies students).

Chemistry majors and minors must complete all courses required for the major/minor with a minimum grade of C.

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Programs of Study

Required Courses for a Major in Chemistry   

CHM-110 and 111 General Chemistry I and II (8)
CHM-210 and 211 Organic Chemistry I and II (8)
CHM-301 and 302 Physical Chemistry I and II (8)
CHM-303 Analytical Chemistry (4)
CHM-305 Instrumental Analysis (4)
CHM-350 Chemical Literature (1)
CHM-411 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (4)
CHM-450 Chemistry Seminar (1)
MAT-211 and 212 Mathematics through Calculus II (8)
PHY-101 and 102 General Physics I and II (8)

Two courses chosen from

CHM-325 Survey of Biochemistry (4)
CHM-401 Advanced Topics in Chemistry (4)
CHM-407, 408 Chemical Research I, II (8)
CHM-425, 426 Biochemistry I, II (8)
CHM-463 Independent Study in Chemistry (4)

Special advanced courses offered at cooperating colleges/universities may be allowed with permission of department advisor and chair. No more than two 300- and/or 400-level chemistry courses (with a minimum grade of C) from a cooperating institution may be used to fulfill requirements for the major.

One course chosen from
MAT-213 Calculus III (3)
MAT-315 Differential Equations (3)
PHY-201 Modern Physics (3)
CST-295 C++ Object-oriented Programming (3)

Another advanced math/physics or computer course may be substituted with permission of the chair.

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Minor in Chemistry

CHM-110 and 111 General Chemistry I and II (8)
CHM-210 and 211 Organic Chemistry I and II (8)
Choice of two courses (with prerequisite) from the following
CHM-301 Physical Chemistry I, CHM-302 Physical Chemistry II, CHM-303 Analytical Chemistry, CHM-305 Instrumental Analysis, CHM-325 Survey of Biochemistry, CHM-401 Advanced Topics in Chemistry, CHM-425 Biochemistry I or CHM-426 Biochemistry II. 300- and 400-level courses must be taken at Notre Dame.

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Pre-Medical, Pre-Dental and Pre-Veterinary Programs

The chemistry department's pre-professional program coordinator will assist the student in selecting courses appropriate to her area of interest. Students take all chemistry courses listed under the chemistry major. Students may substitute one advanced science course (approved by the faculty advisor and program coordinator) for CHM-302, CHM-305 or one of the option courses. Additional requirements:

PHY-101 and 102 General Physics I and II (8)
A minimum of two mathematics courses based on the results of the placement test (Calculus I and II are strongly recommended) (6-8)
BIO-111 Fundamentals of Biology (4)
Three 4-credit courses from the following list
Vertebrate Anatomy, Microbiology, Animal Physiology, Biochemistry I and/or II, or Developmental Biology.

Students following this program of study should consider the minor in biology.

Students should consult the American Medical Association Bulletin, the admission requirements of American dental schools, and individual medical, dental and veterinary school bulletins or admission officers for more specific requirements. Students also should contact the Pre-Professional Advisory Committee early in their course of studies.

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Secondary Education Certification—Approved Program in Chemistry

Students who wish to prepare for teaching in secondary schools take the courses listed under the chemistry major along with BIO-111 Fundamentals of Biology and PHY-155 Introduction to Astronomy. In their senior year, pre-service teachers are encouraged to take CHM-407 Chemical Research I as one of the option courses. Either CHM-411 or one of the option courses is waived with consent of the program coordinator and faculty advisor. One other course substitution may be made when appropriate. In addition, students take the professional education courses offered by the education department for the B.A. or B.A./M.A.T. program.

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Dual Degree Program in Chemistry and Engineering

Qualified students with an interest in one of the engineering disciplines, especially chemical engineering or materials science, may obtain a bachelor of arts degree in chemistry from Notre Dame and a bachelor's degree in engineering from Columbia University, The Johns Hopkins University or the University of Maryland. Students spend the first three years of study at Notre Dame taking general and advanced courses toward the chemistry degree. See the engineering section for specific program information.

Liberal Arts

The student follows the program of study that is outlined in the liberal arts section of the catalog.

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B.A. Chemistry — Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) Options

Students may wish to complete a degree in chemistry prior to entering a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) program. This option allows the student to present a strong application and provides a second degree. Many applicants to Pharm.D. programs already hold an undergraduate degree. Students may improve their prospects for admission by using this option and it provides additional career path options. To do so, students take the required courses for the chemistry major as indicated (including Calculus II and Physics II). Students prepare for applying to a school of pharmacy by taking the necessary additional prerequisites in sciences (e.g. biology courses) and other specific courses in the liberal arts. Students take these courses based on the admission requirements of the pharmacy school to which they will apply.

Students wishing to apply to the Notre Dame of Maryland University School of Pharmacy must take the additional courses as indicated in the pharmacy studies section. The student consults with her academic advisor or the pre-pharmacy coordinator by junior year to assess academic readiness to take the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) exam. The student follows the appropriate application procedure. If a student is interested in a Ph.D. in pharmaceutical sciences, she may apply to a graduate program.

Accelerated B.A./Pharm.D. Program (3 + 4)

The department of chemistry offers Women's College students an opportunity to earn a bachelor's degree on an accelerated basis in combination with their pursuit of the Doctor of Pharmacy degree at the School of Pharmacy. Consult the pharmacy studies section of the Catalog for more information.

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Four-Year Plan

Sample program of study for the chemistry major. Students should select courses with the assistance of a faculty advisor.
See course descriptions for a list of required courses and description of course and program options.

Fall Spring 
First year      
IDS-100 Perspectives in Education 3 ENG-101 College Writing  3
BIO-111 Fundamentals of Biology
(recommended for certain programs)
4 RST-201 Introduction to Biblical Studies 3
CHM-110 General Chemistry 4 CHM-111 General Chemistry II 4
MAT-211 Calculus I 4 MAT-212 Calculus II 4
[15 credits]   [14 credits]  
Second year      
CHM-210 Organic Chemistry 4 CHM-211 Organic Chemistry II 4
PHY-101 Physics I 4 PHY-102 Physics II 4
COM-106 Fundamentals of Oral Communication 3 Religious Studies (300/400) 3
History 3 Philosophy (200) 3
Foreign Language 3 Physical Education 1
 [17 credits]    [15 credits]  
Third year      
CHM-301 Physical Chemistry I 4 CHM-302 Physical Chemistry II 4
CHM-350 Chemical Literature 1 CHM-401/408/426 Advanced Topics/Research/Biochemistry II 4
CHM-325/407/425 Survey of Biochemistry/Research/Biochemistry I 4 Literature 3
Philosophy (300/400) 3 Fine Arts 3
General Education/Electives 6 General Education/Electives 3
[18 credits]   [17 credits]  
Fourth year      
CHM-303 Analytical Chemistry 4 CHM-305 Instrumental Analysis 4
MAT-213/315/PHY-201or CST-295 3 CHM-411 Advanced Inorganic 4
Social Science 3 CHM-450 Chemistry Seminar 1
General Education/Electives 6 Electives/Internship 6
[16 credits]   [15 credits]  

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Courses

CHM-103 The Chemical World Around Us

Explores basic chemical concepts and principles and how they apply to daily life. Discusses chemistry topics of interest to students, including: the environment, radioactivity and nuclear chemistry, polymers and plastics, geochemistry, biochemistry (e.g. DNA, proteins, enzymes), drugs and medicines, food and nutrition, household and personal hygiene products, and other chemical topics/issues related to life in the modern world. Three lectures and one laboratory period each week. Satisfies the general education requirement in natural sciences. Not open to students who have taken CHM-113. [4 credits]

CHM-103L Lab: Chemical World Around Us

CHM-104 Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry

Emphasizes the fundamental concepts and principles that form the basis of general/ inorganic chemistry and those that are particularly pertinent to the health sciences. The following topics are covered: methods of chemistry, understanding the Periodic Table, chemical bonding and properties, chemical reactions and calculations, acids and bases, solutions, behavior of gases, and quantitative and descriptive aspects of chemistry. Use of practical applications will aid students in understanding scientific problems. Laboratory engages students in a variety of chemical experiments that enhance the understanding of lecture topics. Lab and lecture integrated. Fulfills general education requirement in natural sciences for radiological sciences. [3 credits]

CHM-106 Introduction to Organic Chemistry

Presents the basic principles of organic chemistry which include identification and reactions of the fundamental groups, system of nomenclature and stereochemistry. Students also will investigate the properties and reactions of complex organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The laboratory engages students in techniques and methods that are used by chemists to identify, synthesize and purify organic compounds. Lab and lecture integrated. Prerequisite: CHM-104. [3 credits]

CHM-108 Survey of General, Organic and Biochemistry Principles

Emphasizes the fundamental principles that form the basis of general inorganic, organic and biochemistry that are pertinent to the health sciences. The following topics are covered: understanding the properties and reactivity of elements and compounds, chemical bonding and structure, chemical equations and calculations, acids/bases and solutions, behavior of gases, identification and reactions of fundamental groups, system of nomenclature and stereochemistry. Course also investigates the properties and reactions of important compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and some pharmaceuticals. Use of practical applications will aid students in understanding chemical problems. Laboratory activities engage students in a variety of chemical experiments that enhance the understanding of lecture topics. Fulfills general education requirement in natural sciences for students in the nursing program. [4 credits]

CHM-108L Lab: General Organic Biochemistry

CHM-110 General Chemistry I

Focuses on fundamental chemical concepts and principles with emphasis on inorganic compounds. Guided inquiry methods are used to explore descriptive and quantitative aspects of chemistry, including atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, states of matter, solutions, basic thermodynamics, electrochemistry, equilibrium, acids and bases, and kinetics. Laboratory is coordinated with lecture and emphasizes basic techniques such as titration, spectroscopy, and quantitative and qualitative analysis, along with inorganic synthesis and calculator-based experiments. Three lectures, one discussion period and one laboratory each week. High school algebra strongly recommended. Satisfies the general education requirement in natural science. [4 credits]

CHM-110L Lab: General Chemistry I

CHM-111 General Chemistry II

Focuses on fundamental chemical concepts and principles with emphasis on inorganic compounds. Guided inquiry methods are used to explore descriptive and quantitative aspects of chemistry, including atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, states of matter, solutions, basic thermodynamics, electrochemistry, equilibrium, acids and bases, and kinetics. Laboratory is coordinated with lecture and emphasizes basic techniques such as titration, spectroscopy, and quantitative and qualitative analysis, along with inorganic synthesis and calculator-based experiments. Three lectures, one discussion period and one laboratory each week. High school algebra strongly recommended. Prerequisites: CHM-110 with a minimum grade of C or permission of chair. Permission of the instructor is required to enroll in CHM-111 if the prerequisite CHM-110 was not fulfilled at Notre Dame. [ 4 credits ]

CHM-111L Lab: General Chemistry

CHM-113 Chemical Connections

Introduces the field of chemistry and the relationship of chemistry to the material world. The emphases in the course are on developing a chemistry knowledge base, analyzing and evaluating the chemical concepts, principles and processes that are associated with the air, water and terrestrial environment, radioactivity and nuclear chemistry, drugs and medicines, biochemistry, food and nutrition, household products and new materials, and other areas that are of interest to students and the instructor. Laboratory activities are correlated with lecture topics and enable students to perform experiments that demonstrate scientific methods and principles. Satisfies the general education requirement in natural science for College of Adult Undergraduate Studies students. Not open to students who have taken CHM-103. [3 credits]

CHM-210 Organic Chemistry I

Focuses on functional group classification, nomenclature, synthesis, reactions, and spectroscopic analysis with a strong emphasis on reaction mechanisms of organic compounds. Laboratory is coordinated with lecture material and stresses basic techniques such as distillation, recrystallization, extraction, and chromatography, along with organic synthesis using both macroscale and microscale applications. Laboratory also includes an introduction to organic structure determination using a variety of spectral methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Three lectures, one discussion and one laboratory period per week. Prerequisites: CHM-110, 111. [4 credits]

CHM-210L Lab: Organic Chemistry I

CHM-211 Organic Chemistry II

Focuses on functional group classification, nomenclature, synthesis, reactions, and spectroscopic analysis with a strong emphasis on reaction mechanisms of organic compounds. Laboratory is coordinated with lecture material and stresses basic techniques such as distillation, recrystallization, extraction, and chromatography, along with organic synthesis using both macroscale and microscale applications. Laboratory also includes an introduction to organic structure determination using a variety of spectral methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Three lectures, one discussion and one laboratory period per week. Prerequisites for: CHM-210 with a minimum grade of C or permission of chair. Permission of the instructor is required to enroll in CHM-211 if the prerequisite CHM-210 was not fulfilled at Notre Dame. [4 credits]

CHM-211L Lab: Organic Chemistry II

CHM-301 Physical Chemistry I

Provides a detailed view and in-depth analysis of the following topics: physicochemical properties of matter in the gaseous, liquid, and solid states; kinetics and thermodynamics of chemical reactions; behavior of solutions; phase equilibria; electrochemistry; introductory-level quantum mechanics; computational chemistry; atomic and molecular structure; and spectroscopy. The relationship between microscopic structure and macroscopic behavior of matter is explored in laboratory activities and characterized in mathematical terms. Three lectures, one four-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisites: CHM-211, MAT-211 and 212 with minimum grade of C. Permission of instructor if prerequisites are not satisfied. [4 credits]

CHM-301L Lab: Physical Chemistry I

CHM-302 Physical Chemistry II

Provides a detailed view and in-depth analysis of the following topics: physicochemical properties of matter in the gaseous, liquid, and solid states; kinetics and thermodynamics of chemical reactions; behavior of solutions; phase equilibria; electrochemistry; introductory-level quantum mechanics; computational chemistry; atomic and molecular structure; and spectroscopy. The relationship between microscopic structure and macroscopic behavior of matter is explored in laboratory activities and characterized in mathematical terms. Three lectures, one four-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisites: CHM-301 with minimum grade of C. Permission of instructor if prerequisites are not satisfied. [4 credits]

CHM-302L Lab: Physical Chemistry II

CHM-303 Analytical Chemistry

Examines principles and practices of quantitative analysis as applied to gravimetric, volumetric, electrochemical and instrumental methods. Emphasizes acid-base, precipitation, redox and complexation chemistry. Statistical methods are used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of data and results. Covers laboratory determinations of representative chemical compounds and use of proper techniques and laboratory practices. Three lectures, one four-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisite: CHM-110, 111 or equivalent with a minimum of C or permission of instructor. [4 credits]

CHM-303L Lab: Analytical Chemistry

CHM-305 Instrumental Analysis

Examines principles and practices of analytical chemistry using instrumentation. Includes spectroscopic, chromatographic and electrometric techniques. Topics covered include visible, ultraviolet, infrared and atomic spectroscopies; gas and liquid chromatographies; potentiometric, voltammetric and polarographic methods; nuclear magnetic and mass spectrometries; and computer simulations. Analysis of data and presentation of results in journal article format are important features of the course. (Analysis graphics and spreadsheet software are used for this activity.) Three lectures and one four-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisites: CHM-210 and CHM-303 with a minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. [4 credits]

CHM-305L Lab: Instrmntl Analysis

CHM-325 Survey of Biochemistry

Provides an overview of biochemistry. Includes the study of proteins, enzymatic mechanisms and kinetics, energy production, and basic metabolic pathways. Three lectures and one laboratory period per week. Prerequisite: CHM-211 with minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. [ 4 credits ]

CHM-325L Lab:

CHM-350 Chemical Literature

Designed to familiarize the student with technical writings, peer-review of publications, the major reference works and journals of chemistry, and to develop skills in effective use of the literature. The course covers effective use of chemistry reference works, databases, abstracts and journals; strategies for online searches; construction and use of bibliographies; proficient use of computer technology and software; analysis and evaluation of chemistry literature. Students use online searching of Chemical Abstracts and other electronic databases via computer and engage in information retrieval using a variety of sources and the Internet. One meeting per week; significant number of out-of-class task-oriented assignments. Co-requisite: 300- or 400-level CHM course or permission of instructor. [1 credit]

CHM-401 Advanced Topics in Chemistry

Explores a variety of topics within the chemical sciences and related interdisciplinary subjects. New/rapidly emerging areas of chemistry are studied and other important topics that emerge in other chemistry courses are explored in more detail and integrated into new areas. Topics may include heterocyclic chemistry, green chemistry, atomic probe microscopy and nanoscience, materials chemistry and nanotechnology, interface analysis and surface science, chemistry and art, molecular modeling, and bioanalytical chemistry. Group activities promote interpretation and synthesis of complex chemical opics. Three meetings and one discussion session per week; laboratory activities are included. Prerequisite: A 300-level CHM lab course with minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. [4 credits]

CHM-401L Lab: Adv Topics in Chemistry

CHM-407 Chemical Research I

Conducts original laboratory research investigating a topic in the chemical sciences. Includes preliminary literature study, design and execution of experimental work along with presentation of results in written and oral formats. Includes a significant amount of laboratory work each week (six to eight hours), written progress reports and weekly conferences. Junior/senior standing in the major. Admission by permission of faculty member and department chair. Course may not be used for the liberal arts major or for a chemistry minor. [2-4 credits]

CHM-408 Chemical Research II

Conducts original laboratory research investigating a topic in the chemical sciences. Includes preliminary literature study, design and execution of experimental work along with presentation of results in written and oral formats. Includes a significant amount of laboratory work each week (six to eight hours), written progress reports and weekly conferences. Junior/senior standing in the major. Admission by permission of faculty member and department chair. Course may not be used for the liberal arts major or for a chemistry minor. [2-4 credits]

CHM-411 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry

Focuses on in-depth study of the physical and chemical properties of inorganic compounds, with emphasis on structure and bonding and reference to molecular modeling. Explores properties and reactions of the elements, ionic and covalent bonding, acid-base theories, solid-state chemistry, descriptive chemistry of transition metals, and the chemistry of coordination compounds and bioinorganic compounds. Develops professional communication skills through a research paper, peer review and presentations. Laboratory includes synthesis and analysis of coordination compounds, using microscale, macroscale and instrumental techniques. Three lectures, one discussion and one laboratory period each week. Prerequisite: CHM-301 or permission of instructor. [4 credits ]

CHM-411L Lab: Adv Inorganic Chemistry

CHM-425 Biochemistry I

Focuses on biomolecules, enzyme kinetics, the biochemistry of energy production, nucleic acids, and a description of basic metabolic pathways and their integration in functioning organisms. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory each week. Prerequisites: BIO-111, CHM-211 with minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. [4 credits]

CHM-425L Lab: Biochemistry I

CHM-426 Biochemistry II

Focuses on biomolecules, enzyme kinetics, the biochemistry of energy production, nucleic acids, and a description of basic metabolic pathways and their integration in functioning organisms. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory each week. Prerequisites: CHM-425 with minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. [4 credits]

CHM-426L Lab: Biochemistry II

CHM-450 Chemistry Seminar

Includes presentations about internship experiences, laboratory research and literature findings of current topics in chemistry. In this capstone course, students learn to construct and deliver effective technical presentations. Students attend chemistry seminars or professional meetings given at area institutions as part of this course. Evaluations and summaries of talks are required. Students give a formal presentation to faculty, guests and students during the department's Spring Seminar Series. One meeting per week. Prerequisite: chemistry major; CHM-350. [1 credit]

CHM-463 Independent Study in Chemistry

Emphasis is on individual study of a specified chemistry topic under the direction of a faculty member. Choice of topic is made in consultation with the student's major advisor and is selected to meet a specific programmatic need. Topics may include medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry, forensic chemistry or industrial chemistry. Includes significant literature review and study. Laboratory work may be required. Presentation of findings in written and oral formats. Includes significant work each week, written progress reports and weekly conferences. Permission of department chair required. May not be used to satisfy the liberal arts major. [Variable credits (1-4) with typically 3-4]