Radiological Sciences

Chemistry Department

M. Kristine Kirk, Ph.D., Coordinator

Degrees offered

Major

Campuses

Main Campus

The School of Arts and Sciences offers a baccalaureate degree linked with a clinical certification program in various areas of radiological sciences in collaboration with The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medical Imaging. Through studies in liberal arts, science and mathematics, students in the Women's College and the College of Adult Undergraduate Studies broaden their professional knowledge and competence, strengthen their critical thinking and communication skills, develop their leadership potential and deepen their ethical commitments. The technical curriculum provides both theoretical training and practical hands-on clinical experience. There is a strong emphasis on clinical education with the aim of producing graduates who are leaders in health care.

Women's College and College of Adult Undergraduate Studies

Overview
Program of Study
Three-Year Plan

The typical radiological sciences student fulfills the requisite mathematics and science courses as well as the general education requirements for a Bachelor of Science degree at Notre Dame. All courses credited toward the major must be completed with a grade of C or higher. Effective June 2014, students beginning Radiography training must complete all non-clinical requirements prior to admission to the program (see the Three-year Sample Program of Study below). The student seeking certification in Nuclear Medicine, Diagnostic Sonography or Echocardiography must complete at least 60 college credits before starting the clinical program. Students apply to the full-time clinical program in the fall semester prior to the start of the program. The College of Adult Undergraduate Studies students who have completed a clinical training program and are certified technologists are awarded a block of credits towards the bachelor's degree.

Driven by an aging population and advances in technology, there is a great demand for professionals in this field. Students must demonstrate academic excellence, strong interpersonal skills, and knowledge of the profession. Under the guidance of the radiological sciences program coordinator, the qualified student begins the application process for clinical studies. Students must monitor the qualifications for admission to programs in which they are interested to ensure they have met all the requirements for clinical training. They are expected to confer regularly with the coordinator as to their readiness and preparedness for clinical study. The clinical training site determines the admissions criteria for the clinical component, in accord with the professional accrediting agencies. Students are advised that admission to the clinical component of this program is highly competitive and determined by the hospital.

On completing the academic and clinical programs, students are qualified to become licensed medical imaging technologists by passing the national registry exam.

The Maryland Higher Education Commission and the Maryland State Board of Higher Education approve these programs for the education of veterans.

Students in a Bachelor of Science degree program follow the general education program for a Bachelor of Arts degree, except for fine arts and foreign language, which are recommended, but not required.

The student completes one of the following full-time clinical certification programs and one of the two options to obtain the degree.

Clinical Certification Programs

  • Radiography - 18 months
  • Nuclear Medicine Technology - 18 months
  • Diagnostic Medical Sonography - 14 months
  • Echocardiography - 14 months

Currently, the radiography program is accredited by the Joint Review Committee (JRC) on Education in Radiologic Technology; the Nuclear Medicine Technology program is accredited by the JRC on Educational Programs in Nuclear Medicine Technology; and the Diagnostic Medical Sonography and Echocardiography programs are accredited by the JRC on Education in Diagnostic Medical Sonography.

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Program of Study

Part I

Pre-clinical Certification Requirements

Required Courses in Core (Credits)

CHM-110 and CHM-111 General Chemistry I* & II or **CHM-104 Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry* (8 or 3)
CHM-210 and CHM-211 Organic Chemistry I & II or **CHM-106 Introduction to Organic Chemistry (8 or 3)
PHY-101 and PHY-102 General Physics I* & II or **PHY-111 College Physics* (8 or 3)
BIO-201 and BIO-202 Human Anatomy and Physiology I & II (8)
CST-130 Introduction to Microcomputer Applications (3)
COM-201 Interpersonal Communication* or COM-106 **Fundamentals of Oral Communication (3)
LCL-333 Medical Terminology (3)
MAT-107 Elementary Functions* or MAT-211 Calculus I* (3 or 4)
MAT-215 Basic Statistics* (3)
PHL-339 Medical Ethics* (3)
PSY-101 Introductory Psychology* (4)
* Course also satisfies general education requirement
** College of Adult Undergraduate Studies course

Part II: Professional Training

Option I

Complete two clinical concentrations (not an option for Radiography)
Radiography (38)
Nuclear Medicine Technology (38)
Diagnostic Medical Sonography (38)
Echocardiography (38)

Advanced Imaging Programs (prior completion of Radiography is required)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (6 months) (12)
Computed Tomography (CT) (6 months) (12)
Interventional Cardiovascular (6 months) (12)

Option II

Complement one clinical certification program with the equivalent of one year of concentrated study in business (required for Radiography, optional for other modalities).

Business Concentration

The purpose of the business concentration is to meet the needs of radiological sciences professionals in middle-level positions who find themselves supervising staff or who have substantial information systems responsibilities beyond the level of their preparation in typical clinical certification programs. All business concentrators will have exposure to management and professional communication principles, and some accounting and finance.

Beyond these core courses, students may choose the organizational management track or the computer systems management track. The organizational management track emphasizes preparing to supervise others and contributing to the market orientation now emerging in health care organizations. Students following this track will qualify for a minor in business without taking additional courses. The computer systems management track prepares students to address the increasingly complex information systems responsibilities faced by many health care professionals. Students following this track may qualify, depending on course selection, for the minor in business.

Core Required Courses
BUS-302 Principles of Management (3)
BUS-310 Professional Communications (3)
BUS-416 Managing Financial Resources (3)

Organizational Management Track    
BUS-303 Principles of Marketing (3)
ECO-212 Introduction to Microeconomics (3)
BUS-480 Organizational Behavior or BUS-486 Human Resource Management (3)

Select one of the following (3)
BUS-334 Teamwork and Negotiation
BUS-360 Business Research
BUS-400 Leadership 
COM-403 Organizational Communication

Computer Systems Management Track
CST-141 Fundamentals of Information Systems (3)
CST-171 Programming Concepts (3)
CST-385 Systems Analysis (3)
CST-421 Database Concepts (3)

Select two of the following (6)
ECO-212 Introduction to Microeconomics
BUS-400 Leadership 
CST-355 Project Management
CST-356 Internet/Intranet Information Management

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Three-Year Plan

Sample program of study for the radiological sciences major in the Women's College prior to clinical training (required for Radiography, recommended for all modalities). Students should select courses with the assistance of the program coordinator. (See course descriptions for a list of required courses and description of course and program options.)

Fall/Winterim   Spring  
First year      
General Chemistry I 4 General Chemistry II 4
Calculus I 4 Intro. Psychology 4
Fundamentals of Biology 4 Interpersonal Communication 3
College Writing 3 Professional Communications 3
IDS-100 Perspectives in Education 3 200-level Philosophy 3
[18 credits]   [17 credits]  
Second year      
Organic Chemistry I 4 Organic Chemistry II 4
General Physics I 4 General Physics II 4
Intro. to Biblical Studies 3 Literature 3
BUS302 Principles of Management 3 Business 3
Medical Terminology 3 Intro. to Microcomputer Apps. 3
[17 credits]   [17 credits]  
Third year      
Human Anatomy & Physiology I 4 Human Anatomy & Physiology II 4
Business 3 Business 3
Business 3 Business 3
Medical Ethics 3 300-level Religious Studies 3
Basic Statistics 3 History 3
Physical Education 1 [16 credits]  
[17 credits]      

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Courses

BIO-201 Human Anatomy and Physiology I

Integrates the study of structure with function of the human body. As a suite of courses, BIO-201 and 202 are intended for students interested in satisfying requirements for pharmacy and various allied health programs. The content and level of delivery of both BIO-201 and 202 are structured so that they are compatible with similar courses offered by cooperating institutions. BIO-201 includes discussion of cellular, tissue, integumentary, skeletal, muscular and neural systems. Includes laboratory study of anatomical models of humans and skeletal components, and dissection of a cat. BIO-202 includes discussion of endocrine, circulatory, immunological, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. Strongly emphasizes study of physiological functions that includes monitoring of body systems with analog and digital hardware. Each course includes three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. A competency exam covering basic chemistry and biology may be administered at the first class meeting and weighed in the final grade. To begin the course sequence, the student must complete BIO-111 or the equivalent with a minimum grade of C or obtain permission of the instructor. BIO-201 with minimum grade of C is a prerequisite for BIO-202. [ 4 credits each term ]

BIO-202 Human Anatomies and Physiology II

Integrates the study of structure with function of the human body. As a suite of courses, BIO-201 and 202 are intended for students interested in satisfying requirements for pharmacy and various allied health programs. The content and level of delivery of both BIO-201 and 202 are structured so that they are compatible with similar courses offered by cooperating institutions. BIO-201 includes discussion of cellular, tissue, integumentary, skeletal, muscular and neural systems. Includes laboratory study of anatomical models of humans and skeletal components, and dissection of a cat. BIO-202 includes discussion of endocrine, circulatory, immunological, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. Strongly emphasizes study of physiological functions that includes monitoring of body systems with analog and digital hardware. Each course includes three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. A competency exam covering basic chemistry and biology may be administered at the first class meeting and weighed in the final grade. To begin the course sequence, the student must complete BIO-111 or the equivalent with a minimum grade of C or obtain permission of the instructor. BIO-201 with minimum grade of C is a prerequisite for BIO-202. [ 4 credits each term ]

BUS-302 Principles of Management

Examines organizational, human resources, operational, and functional aspects of ethically managing activites of diverse workforces in organizational settings. Analyzes traditional managerial functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling within the context of changing demands in organizations that compete effectively in an inter-connected, global environment. [ 3 credits ]

BUS-303 Principles of Marketing

This course introduces the language of marketing the strategic marketing process. While formulating viable marketing strategies for diverse business situations, learners will gain experience gathering and analyzing industry and market data, as well as implementing core-marketing concepts such as market segmentation, targeting, positioning,and the marketing mix in the formulation and implementation of real-world marketing strategies. This course culminates in the development of a marketing plan for a new product, service or retail establishment. [ 3 credits ]

BUS-310 Professional Communications

Explores communications contexts within organizations and refines written and oral communications skill sused in business and professional settings. Emphasizes appropriateness, effectiveness, and nuance while taking into consideration situation, audience, and delivery mode. Learners use common business communications tools and technologies as well as social media. Prerequisite: ENG-101 or IDS-100 (honors section). [ 3 credits ]

BUS-334 Teamwork and Negotiation

Analyzes the dynamics, structure and function of teams in businesses and other organizations. Examines the framework and components of conflict resolution and negotiation in both organizational and personal situations. Learners will assess and strengthen key interpersonal skills. This course utilizes role active learning pedagogy extensively including role plays, small group exercises, and simulations. [3 credits]

BUS-360 Business Research

Introduces students to key sources of secondary data and basic research methods that enable them to define the research problem, develop the research plan, collect, evaluate and organize relevant information, develop findings and conclusions and recommend a preferred course of action supported by analysis. Students will learn core primary research concepts such as how to locate key industry and customer information via secondary databases as well as to design an electronic survey and conduct a focus group. [ 3 credits ]

BUS-400 Leadership

Identifies important leadership concepts used to critically evaluate students' perceptions about leadership and describe relevant leadership attitudes, behaviors, and skills. Incorporates a variety of experiences including self-assessment, skill development, and small group team activities to strengthen personal and organizational leadership. Integrates course learning, experience and feedback to assess individual leadership skills and identify personal development needs. Prerequisites: Junior/Senior standing. [3 credits]

BUS-416 Managing Financial Resources

Provides students with an overview of the accounting and financial tools necessary for managers. Addresses the development and analysis of basic financial statements, the development of budgets (both operating and capital), and other techniques of financial analysis for management decisionmaking. Prerequisite: general education mathematics requirement. Business majors may not take this course; students who have taken BUS-261 may not take this course. [3 credits]

BUS-480 Organizational Behavior

Examines the factors affecting human behavior in organizations. Students apply relevant theories to contemporary organizational problems through the use of case analyses, readings and experiential exercises. The course focuses on developing analytical frameworks to describe and assess organizational culture, structure, leadership, ethics, change, decision making, power and political processes. Prerequisite: BUS-302. Cannot be taken if student has taken BUS-394. [3 credits]

BUS-486 Human Resource Management

Develops knowledge and skills in the human resource management functions of strategic human resource planning, job design, recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, employee relations and compensation and benefits. Focuses on the legal environment of human resource management and its impact on the entire human resource system. Enhances background students will need to make informed human resource decisions in organizations. Prerequisite: BUS-302. Cannot be taken if student took BUS-315. [3 credits]

CHM-104 Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry

Emphasizes the fundamental concepts and principles that form the basis of general/ inorganic chemistry and those that are particularly pertinent to the health sciences. The following topics are covered: methods of chemistry, understanding the Periodic Table, chemical bonding and properties, chemical reactions and calculations, acids and bases, solutions, behavior of gases, and quantitative and descriptive aspects of chemistry. Use of practical applications will aid students in understanding scientific problems. Laboratory engages students in a variety of chemical experiments that enhance the understanding of lecture topics. Lab and lecture integrated. Fulfills general education requirement in natural sciences for radiological sciences. [3 credits]

CHM-106 Introduction to Organic Chemistry

Presents the basic principles of organic chemistry which include identification and reactions of the fundamental groups, system of nomenclature and stereochemistry. Students also will investigate the properties and reactions of complex organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The laboratory engages students in techniques and methods that are used by chemists to identify, synthesize and purify organic compounds. Lab and lecture integrated. Prerequisite: CHM-104. [3 credits]

CHM-110 General Chemistry I

Focuses on fundamental chemical concepts and principles with emphasis on inorganic compounds. Guided inquiry methods are used to explore descriptive and quantitative aspects of chemistry, including atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, states of matter, solutions, basic thermodynamics, electrochemistry, equilibrium, acids and bases, and kinetics. Laboratory is coordinated with lecture and emphasizes basic techniques such as titration, spectroscopy, and quantitative and qualitative analysis, along with inorganic synthesis and calculator-based experiments. Three lectures, one discussion period and one laboratory each week. High school algebra strongly recommended. Satisfies the general education requirement in natural science. [4 credits]

CHM-111 General Chemistry II

Focuses on fundamental chemical concepts and principles with emphasis on inorganic compounds. Guided inquiry methods are used to explore descriptive and quantitative aspects of chemistry, including atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, states of matter, solutions, basic thermodynamics, electrochemistry, equilibrium, acids and bases, and kinetics. Laboratory is coordinated with lecture and emphasizes basic techniques such as titration, spectroscopy, and quantitative and qualitative analysis, along with inorganic synthesis and calculator-based experiments. Three lectures, one discussion period and one laboratory each week. High school algebra strongly recommended. Prerequisites: CHM-110 with a minimum grade of C or permission of chair. Permission of the instructor is required to enroll in CHM-111 if the prerequisite CHM-110 was not fulfilled at Notre Dame. [ 4 credits ]

CHM-210 Organic Chemistry I

Focuses on functional group classification, nomenclature, synthesis, reactions, and spectroscopic analysis with a strong emphasis on reaction mechanisms of organic compounds. Laboratory is coordinated with lecture material and stresses basic techniques such as distillation, recrystallization, extraction, and chromatography, along with organic synthesis using both macroscale and microscale applications. Laboratory also includes an introduction to organic structure determination using a variety of spectral methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Three lectures, one discussion and one laboratory period per week. Prerequisites: CHM-110, 111. [4 credits]

CHM-211 Organic Chemistry II

Focuses on functional group classification, nomenclature, synthesis, reactions, and spectroscopic analysis with a strong emphasis on reaction mechanisms of organic compounds. Laboratory is coordinated with lecture material and stresses basic techniques such as distillation, recrystallization, extraction, and chromatography, along with organic synthesis using both macroscale and microscale applications. Laboratory also includes an introduction to organic structure determination using a variety of spectral methods, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Three lectures, one discussion and one laboratory period per week. Prerequisites for: CHM-210 with a minimum grade of C or permission of chair. Permission of the instructor is required to enroll in CHM-211 if the prerequisite CHM-210 was not fulfilled at Notre Dame. [4 credits]

COM-106 Fundamentals of Oral Communication

Cultivates oral communication skill for non-majors, with emphasis on improving speaking and listening skills. Analyzes factors affecting oral communication with self, in dyads, small groups, the public arena, organizations, mass media, and among members of differing cultural backgrounds. Practical experience in delivering speeches and briefings. Fulfills the general education requirement in oral communication. [3 credits]

COM-201 Interpersonal and Team Communication

Examines concepts, principles and skills central to interpersonal communication processes. Develops understanding of verbal and nonverbal dimensions of human interaction from both experiential and competency-based approaches. Consideration given to group dynamics. Students write reflective journals and participate in a number of workshop experiences. [3 credits]

COM-403 Organizational Communication

Studies communication systems, structure, problems and solutions within complex organizations, such as business corporations, governmental agencies, hospitals and schools. Students develop practical plans to improve communication within organizations. [3 credits]

CST-130 Introduction to Computer Applications I Applications

Emphasizes problem-solving skills for all disciplines, such as creating formatted documents, using spreadsheets to analyze information quantitatively, editing image visual computer presentations to accompany reports. In addition, course examines up-to-date computer security and privacy issues. Course focuses on computer competencies for the non-major. [3 credits]

CST-141 Fundamentals of Information Systems

Introduces the characteristics and architectures of information systems and their impact on businesses. Explores elements of computer hardware, a variety of software capabilities, telecommunications infrastructure and the system development life cycle. This is the gateway course in the major. Satisfies the technological competency requirement. [3 credits]

CST-171 Programming Concepts

Introduces computer programming using a common small business language such as Microsoft Visual Basic. Emphasizes programming structures such as decisions, repetitions, sub procedures, functions, and arrays using structured program design with object-oriented concepts. Students learn to write a variety of program types to meet various business needs. Satisfies the technological competency requirement. [3 credits]

CST-355 Project Management

Investigates project management as it applies to the systems development life cycle with an electronic project management tool. Emphasizes resource allocation and sub-project definition. Students will apply theory and principles learned to solutions for practical business problems. Prerequisite: CST-171 or CST-261. [3 credits]

CST-356 Internet Communication

Examines the advantages and challenges of the Internet for businesses communication. The uses of social media as business tools will be explored. [3 credits]

CST-385 Systems Analysis

Examines the system life cycle and alternative methodologies, emphasizing techniques of project management, system documentation, logical and physical system specification, system development and installation. Students complete a number of systems design projects. Prerequisite: CST-171 or CST-261. [3 credits]

CST-421 Database Concepts

Introduces concepts and techniques of structuring, storing and retrieving data. Includes database and database table design, data normalization and introductory SQL programming. This is a project-based course. Prerequisite: CST-385. [3 credits]

ECO-212 Introduction to Microeconomics

Examines the manner in which prices are determined and limited resources are allocated efficiently through mastery of basic supply and demand. Considers the behavior of producers and consumers under various competitive conditions. Assesses the role of government in responding to market failures. Fulfills general education requirement in social science. [3 credits]

IDS-100 Perspectives on Education and Culture

Assists first-year students in making a successful transition to college life. The course has three overlapping themes: becoming an intentional learner, becoming a Notre Dame woman, and acquiring global and intercultural fluency. Each student will examine and reflect upon various aspects of her life, including her relationship to other students, the institution and the community (understanding culture, appreciating diversity). Students will have the opportunity to develop personal, academic, and leadership skills and habits that will enhance their college experiences and promote lifelong learning. Required for first-year traditional age students and transfer students with fewer than 12 credits. [3 credits]

LCL-333 Medical Terminology

Instructs the dstudent on the identification of the four common word elements (prefix, suffix, root word and combining vowel), in a medical word in order to understand the medical term as a whole entity. This course will facilitate the understanding of the Latin and Greek language basis of medical terminology. [ 3 credits ]

MAT-107 Elementary Functions

Provides preparation for study of calculus, and is also designed for pre-service elementary educators with a strong interest in mathematics. Covers polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions and their applications. Graphing calculator is used throughout the course. Prerequisite: Successful completion of two years of high school algebra. Fulfills the general education requirement in mathematics. [3 credits]

MAT-211 Calculus I

Introduces functions, limits, continuity, differential calculus of polynomial, rational, exponential and logarithmic functions, as well as basic integration techniques. Applications are considered throughout the course with an emphasis on the life sciences. Weekly laboratory is an integral part of the course. Graphing calculators used to explore topics covered. Fulfills the general education requirement in mathematics Prerequisite: strong high school algebra background or successful completion of MAT-107. [4 credits]

MAT-215 Basic Statistics

Introduces the basic ideas of statistics: descriptive statistics, central tendency variability, probability distributions, sampling, estimation, hypothesis testing, correlation and regression, multinomial experiments, contingency tables and analysis of variance. A statistical software package is used. Designed for students in a variety of fields that rely on regular statistical analysis in decision-making. Fulfills general education requirement in mathematics. Prerequisite: A strong algebraic background or successful completion of MAT 100 or MAT 103 is recommended. [3 credits]

PHL-339 Medical Ethics

Evaluates the traditional foundations of moral theory in the West, with special emphasis on issues in medical ethics. Prerequisites: 200-level philosophy course. Fulfills general education requirements for 300/400-level course and values. [ 3 credits ]

PHY-101 General Physics I

Studies the fundamental physical laws of nature and their use in understanding natural phenomena. Course provides a knowledge base for study in all areas of science and mathematics. Topics include kinematics, dynamics of motion, Newton's laws, rotational mechanics and conservation of energy and momentum. Development of the concepts of vector algebra and calculus are provided as needed. Three lectures, one three-hour laboratory weekly. Fulfills general education requirement in natural science. [4 credits]

PHY-102 General Physics II

Continues studies of the fundamental physical laws of nature and their use in understanding natural phenomena. Topics include classical wave motion, acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism. Development of the concepts of vector algebra and calculus are provided as needed. Three lectures, one three-hour laboratory weekly. [4 credits]

PHY-111 College Physics

Provides a survey of the field for students with interests in the health sciences. Topics include mechanics of motion, energy, thermodynamics, electricity, magnetism, atomic and nuclear structure, and radioactivity. Fulfills general education requirement in natural science. CAUS only. [3 credits]

PSY-101 Introductory Psychology

Examines psychology's perspective on human behavior through many human experiences: learning and memory, perception, motivation and emotion, personality, social interaction, normal and abnormal behavior, and human development. Draws from experience and fosters application to the students' own lives. This is a foundational course, and it meets prerequisite requirements for most psychology courses. Fulfills general education requirement in social science. Lecture and lab. [4 credits]